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Ravanica

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Ravanica

Manastir RavanicaManastir Ravanica je manastir u Srbiji, koji se nalazi u podnožju Kučajskih planina, pored sela Senje kod Ćuprije. Ravanica je zadužbina kneza Lazara, koji je poginuo u bitci na Kosovu na Vidovdan 28. juna 1389. godine. Knez Lazar je prvobitno sahranjen u Prištini. Oko 1392. mošti kneza Lazara prenesene su iz mitropolitske crkve u Prištini u njegovu zadužbinu manastir Ravanicu, gde su položene u hram Vaznesenja Hristova. U vreme seobe Srba 1690. Lazareve mošti su prenesene do Sentandreje u Ugarsku, a kasnije u fruškogorski manastir Vrdnik (Nova Ravanica). Godine 1942. su prenešene u Sabornu crkvu u Beograd. Lazareve mošti su povodom 600 godina od Kosovske bitke 1989. godine vraćene u Ravanicu.

Crkva je posvećena Vaznesenju Gospodnjem i ograđena je čvrstim odbrambenim zidom sa sedam kula. Ravanica je sagrađena između 1375. i 1377. godine, a freske su oslikane nekoliko godina pred Kosovsku bitku. Ktitorska kompozicija je izmenjena i doslikana je Lazareva pogibija. Na kompoziciji se nalaze i knjeginja Milica i njihovi sinovi Stefan i Vuk.

Svojim arhitektonskim i likovnim obeležjima crkva predstavlja početak moravske škole i originalno arhitektonsko rešenje nastalo spajanjem svetogorske tradicije trolisne osnove i modela upisanog krsta sa pet kupola. Trolisna osnova je postala uzor u daljem razvoju prostorne koncepcije hramova. Crkva je zidana naizmeničnim redovima kamena i opeke i ukrašena bogatom reljefnom plastikom.

Priprata dozidana sa zapada potiče iz 18. veka. U jugoistočnom delu je grob prepodobnog Romila Ravaničkog, podvižnika iz grupe Sinajita koji su u Srbiju došli u vreme kneza Lazara

Južno od crkve je grob Cincara Janka Popovića, rodom iz Ohrida, koji je u Srbiju došao 1800. godine, učestvovao u Prvom srpskom ustanku i postao vojvoda.

Kao značajno središte duhovnog, kulturnog, književnog i umetničkog života Ravanica je uticala na nastanak više crkava i manastira, među kojima se ističe manastir Sisojevac.

Do danas su sačuvane tri kule i deo severnog bedema. U starim izvorima se pominje da je manastirska utvrda imala 7 pirgova, dok je jedan putopisac 1568. godine video svega 4 očuvane kule. Unutar manastirskog kompleksa je 1829. godine postojala velika trpezarija iz srednjeg veka koje danas više nema.

Svake godine srpski narod obeležava verski i nacionalni praznik Vidovdan 28 juna, na koji vernici dolaze da se poklone moštima svetog kneza Lazara i kada se služi parastos svim izginulim ratnicima od Kosova do danas.

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